Bilingual Speech Therapy
From my research review of bilingual speech therapy, I realized we know a lot and yet we don’t know much at all!
What do we know about bilingual speech therapy?
We DO know that children who enter kindergarten who have delayed expressive language and emergent literacy skills are at risk for academic difficulties especially ELL students!
Current Practice Recommendations
1. Therapy In Primary Language
The best practice for bilingual speech therapy is to provide therapy in both the child’s strongest language usually the first language (L1) as well as the second language (L2).
That sounds great, let’s do it! Oh, wait...I don’t speak Urdu, Japanese, Korean, Russian, Polish, Tagalog, or the many other languages in the world.
2. Therapy In English and Bridge To Primary Language
Another option is to provide therapy in the therapist's primary language (English for me) and support the child’s first language (L1) with a bilingual home program as well as using vocabulary bridging techniques during therapy if possible. This is more feasible for me. I will continue with this bilingual speech therapy option.
Why support the primary language?
There are MANY reasons to support a child's primary language.
To start, there are negative social and emotional implications if the primary language is lost. The children need to know their primary language in order to be part of their community/culture and build relationships with family members.
Also, a strong first language will help the development of the second language.
Not to mention, there are MANY benefits of knowing 2 languages. Read more about this here: benefits of being bilingual.
Bilingual Speech Therapy Techniques
Shared reading is one of the best techniques for monolingual AND bilingual students. However, it is a must do for bilingual speech therapy.
Advantages of Shared Reading:
- Books are meaningful, functional, and REPEATABLE (multiple exposures)
- Books provide visuals
- Vocabulary is naturally thematic
How To Do Shared Reading:
- Introduce the story. Talk about the title and author and make predictions based on the cover.
- As you read the story, introduce and teach new vocabulary words using multiple modalities and techniques: role-playing, provide synonyms and antonyms, use the word in a sentence, connect to prior knowledge. Basically, don't just define a word and move on.
- Ask questions about story grammar elements: characters, setting, problem, reactions, events, resolution.
- Make predictions as you read. "What do you think will happen next?"
- Talk about characters, their feelings, etc...
- Relate events to the student's lives.
- Ask "wh" questions and check for comprehension.
- Repeat the SAME BOOK next session.
**Talk the students through your reasoning**
Vocabulary Bridging To Primary Language
This isn't really a separate technique but something to add to the shared reading activity.
Vocabulary bridging is providing rich expansions of a new vocabulary word in English and the child’s first language. Bilingual children need lots of exposure across varying contexts to associate all semantic features of words in one language to another language.
This is feasible for me to do with Spanish speaking students as I speak Spanish. More brainstorming needs to be done for my other bilingual students.
Another Caveat.....There is some research that says if a child has been speaking English for more than 2 years, vocabulary bridging isn't as necessary. It is not harmful by any means, just not as helpful!
Tips for Parents at Home
My son is a late talker and he is also bilingual. For a personal account of what has worked for us, please read more at Late Talker: Bilingual Tips
- Books: Finding bilingual books help quite a bit during vocabulary bridging. Please refer to bilingual books for kids for suggestions.
- Word Lists: There are Spanish word lists with directions for home articulation activities for parents. Please refer parents to this page for a basic review of articulation practices as well as Spanish word lists.
- Spanish Flashcards: We have 104 pages of Spanish articulation materials with instructions for parents and a home program guide. You can work on speech during sessions or create a home program that actually has a chance of working.
- Spanish Speech Therapy Materials: More FREE Spanish homework sheets that target speech and language goals.
- Membership: Our membership program has lots and lots of speech therapy goodies including all the flashcards, parent handouts, and more. Read about it here.